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    [歷史故事] [手機訪問]
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    歷史上真實的趙云是怎么死的?

    時間:2015-08-08來源: 作者:

      《三國演義》中,對趙云的評價較高,且看歷史上真實的趙云吧!

      

      趙云自追隨劉備后,直到劉備當了漢中王,可說是馬不停蹄,無役不予。阿斗確是他在長坂坡救出的,史書雖沒《三國演義》寫得那么玄,但趙云救阿斗不是虛構的。進軍西川,是趙云第一次沒隨劉備行動而留守荊州。可就是這次留守,他又干出了另一件大事,即“截江奪斗”,也是史有明文的壯舉。兩次三番救了后主劉禪的小命,趙云對蜀漢的汗馬功勞還小么?可劉備得了西川后,對趙云就再沒重用了。

      

      定軍山之戰,主謀是法正,而“親冒矢石”強攻定軍山的是劉備本人,趙云根本沒上第一線。

      

      一出祁山,趙云也沒當先鋒,與鄧芝領偏師出斜谷策應主力。街亭失守全線大敗,而“云與鄧芝勒兵徐徐而退,不致大損。”《演義》中的“不損一人一騎”是羅老先生給英雄帶的花環。而戰后孔明上表檢討,自貶三級,有功無過的趙云卻也糊里糊涂地跟著被貶了級。直至去世,趙云也未獲封侯。

      

      趙云不得重用,很大的一個因素是他出身布衣,不是名門望族。這與中國歷史上產生于西漢后期,東漢時達到高峰,直至唐代才衰落的“門閥制度”有關。

      

      漢末亂世,群雄并起,門閥制度也受到沖擊,但其生命力極為頑強。袁紹貴為十八路諸侯盟主,“四世三公”的身世是決定因素。三國之中,曹瞞對門閥制度最不感冒,“青梅煮酒論英雄”時把袁氏的“四世三公”稱為“冢中枯骨”。他手下的戰將中,除曹氏、夏侯氏外,典韋、許褚是草莽豪強,徐晃、張遼、文聘是降將。而劉備早期無人可用,顧不上講究門第。但臥龍一到,這套玩意兒就又活了。魏、蜀、吳三國,蜀漢對門閥制度的堅持是最明確的,趙云也就倒霉了。同時,孔明的任人唯親,也是史有定論的,馬謖、楊儀就是例子。難怪在孔明當政的后期,蜀漢是“蜀中無大將,廖化做先鋒”了。

      

      劉備稱帝,群臣上賀表,列了前五十個人的名字加上“........等一百八十人”。諸位知道領銜的是誰么?“征西大將軍都亭侯馬超”!沒別的原因,“馬孟起世代公侯”是唯一的理由。法正列第二,孔明第八。趙云呢?在“........等一百八十人”中,連名字都不能列在賀表上。

      

      歷來讀史之人有“漢家待功臣薄”的感慨,漢高帝劉邦,殺死了韓信、彭越、黥布;漢武帝時有飛將軍李廣的悲劇。到了最后三分之一的后主時,趙云好歹還是壽終正寢的。

      

      《演義》上寫劉禪聞趙云死而大哭,又是羅老先生加的花環。那時的劉禪,早把救過他兩次的趙云忘得一干二凈了,連點“悼念”的意思都沒有。到得后來,不知道怎地又想起救命恩人來了,在給別人封侯時順帶也追封了趙云。可趙云要是知道追封的事,準得氣得在墳墓里詐尸不可:那時距蜀漢亡國還剩下不到三年了!(文/百度知道)

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